Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata
|Title||Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Guck D., Timmer M., Hatefi H., Ruijters E.JJ, Stoelinga M.IA|
|Conference Name||Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis, ATVA 2014, Sydney, NSW, Australia|
|Keywords||analysis, costs, Markov automata, reachability, rewards|
Costs and rewards are important ingredients for many types of systems, modelling critical aspects like energy consumption, task completion, repair costs, and memory usage. This paper introduces Markov reward automata, an extension of Markov automata that allows the modelling of systems incorporating rewards (or costs) in addition to nondeterminism, discrete probabilistic choice and continuous stochastic timing. Rewards come in two flavours: action rewards, acquired instantaneously when taking a transition; and state rewards, acquired while residing in a state. We present algorithms to optimise three reward functions: the expected cumulative reward until a goal is reached, the expected cumulative reward until a certain time bound, and the long-run average reward. We have implemented these algorithms in the SCOOP/IMCA tool chain and show their feasibility via several case studies.